Hermit Crab Essay Definition Spanish

  • What else does the hermit want for his $100 a week?

  • The town derives its name from a hermit who lived here in the 7th and 8th centuries.

  • Then, having spent three years in the desert with the hermit Banus, who was presumably an Essene, he became a Pharisee.

  • You are talking about the guy everyone in town calls the hermit - Russell Cade.

  • 29) the hermit Paul of the 4th century who threw away a pebble as he recited each of his 300 daily prayers; and a canon of the English synod of Cealcythe in 816 (Mansi xiv.

  • In Korea, the " Hermit Nation," or as the Koreans prefer to say, " The Land of the Morning Calm," Christianity was introduced at the end of the 18th century by some members of the Korean legation at Pekin who had met Roman Catholic missionaries.

  • It is also called the Simeonstor, after a Greek hermit who inhabited it.

  • Around the hermit of Hyeres, Hugh of Digne, was formed a group of Franciscans who expected from the advent of the third age the triumph of their ascetic ideas.

  • Gregory is related to have added a clause to the creed which Aristaces brought back; he became a hermit on Mount Sebuh about the year 332, and died there.

  • This grandiose project was unexpectedly destroyed by the energetic resistance of Japan, who had ear-marked the Hermit Kingdom for herself, and who declared plainly that she would never tolerate the exclusive influence of Russia in Manchuria.

  • During the absence of the pope, a certain hermit began to spread heresy and was opposed by Ignatius and his companions.

  • Fortified by these resolves he betook himself to a hermit life in the wastes of Chalcis, S.E.

  • In 1095 Peter the Hermit preached the first crusade there.

  • HERMIT, a solitary, one who withdraws from all intercourse with other human beings in order to live a life of religious contemplation, and so marked off from a "coenobite" (Gr.

  • Loretto School, one of the foremost public schools in Scotland, occupies the site of the chapel of Our Lady of Loretto, which was founded in 1534 by Thomas Duthie, a hermit from Mt Sinai.

  • A little farther down the river is St Robert's cave, which is supposed to have been the residence of the hermit, and in 1744 was the scene of the murder of Daniel Clarke by Eugene Aram, whose story is told in Lytton's wellknown novel.

  • For the First Crusade William had followed Albert of Aix; and he had consequently depicted Peter the Hermit as the prime mover in the Crusade.

  • From the 14th century to the middle of the 16th, Ubertin of Casale (in his Arbor Vitae crucifixae), Bartholomew of Pisa (author of the Liber Conformitatum), the Calabrian hermit Telesphorus, John of La Rochetaillade, Seraphin of Fermo, Johannes Annius of Viterbo, Coelius Pannonius, and a host of other writers, repeated or complicated ad infinitum the exegesis of Abbot Joachim.

  • Writing in the name of the desolate church at Jerusalem he sounded the first trumpet-call of the crusades, though almost a century was to pass away before his note was repeated by Peter the Hermit and Urban II.'

  • He returned to his native place and for many years lived as a hermit in the desert by the marshes on the Egyptian border.

  • There are many insectivorous birds; among the song birds are the hermit thrush, the wood thrush, the Wilson's thrush, the brown thrasher, the bobolink, the catbird, the oven bird, the house wren, the song sparrow, the fox sparrow, the vesper sparrow, the white-throated sparrow (Peabody bird), the goldfinch and the robin.

  • Before the middle of the century Richard Rolle, the hermit of Hampole 1349), turned into English, with certain additions and omissions, the famous Commentary on the Psalms by Peter Lombard.

  • It has few distinctive species, but within its borders the southern mole and cotton-tail rabbit of the South meet the northern star-nosed and Brewers moles and the varying hare of the North, and the southern bobwhite, Baltimore oriole, bluebird, catbird, chewink, thrasher and wood thrush are neighbors of the bobolink, solitary vireo and the hermit and Wilson s thrushes.

  • The first part, under Peter the Hermit, he got rid of by sending them on to Asia Minor, where they were massacred by the Turks (1096).

  • The generally accepted theory is that it was a pagan altar which some hermit afterwards converted into a cell.

  • There was a friary of Augustine or Hermit Friars here founded apparently about 1280.

  • From Manchuria, it was assumed, the political influence and spontaneous infiltration would naturally spread to Korea, and on the deeply indented coast of the Hermit Kingdom might be constructed new ports and arsenals more spacious and strategically more important than Port Arthur.

  • Prosecution of his literary enterprise; a hermit in his study as long as he chose, he found the most delightful recreation always ready for him at the threshold.

  • The 12th century collegiate church, a fine example of the Romanesque style of Limousin, contains a richly sculptured tomb of St Junien, the hermit of the 6th century from whom the town takes its name.

  • At Clermont became the staple for wandering preachers, among whom Peter the Hermit distinguished himself by his fiery zea1.2 Riding on an ass from place to place through France and along the Rhine, he carried away by his eloquence thousands of the poor.

  • The first of these, under Walter the Penniless, passed through Hungary in May, and reached Constantinople, where it halted to wait for the Hermit, in the middle of July.

  • In revenge the hermit brought up the former accusations concerning the relations to the Inquisition, and proclaimed Ignatius and his friends to be false, designing men and no better than concealed heretics.

  • The hermit thrush, veery, song sparrow, red-eyed vireo, bunting, warbler and wren are among the song birds of the forests.

  • According to the testimony of Athanasius of Alexandria, the hermit Anthony decided that it should be held to be unlawful and impious to leave the bodies of the martyrs unburied (Vita Ant.

  • Living as a hermit on Monte Morrone near Sulmone in the Abruzzi, he attracted other ascetics about him and organized them into a congregation of the Benedictines which was later called the Celestines.

  • He seems to have lived mainly as a hermit outside the city: his time was devoted to study, writing, teaching and the refutation of heresies.

  • Even in 1892 Spiiller, in his essay upon Lamennais, pointed out how the latest evolution of Catholicism was taking the course indicated by Lamennais in his Livre du peuple (1837), and how the hermit of " La Chenaie," who departed this life in bitter strife with Rome, declared himself to be the actual precursor of modern Christian Socialism.

  • 1349), English hermit and author, was born near the end of the 13th century, at Thornton (now Thornton Dale), near Pickering, Yorkshire.

  • By some it is supposed that a mysterious hermit named Fomich, who lived at Tomsk until 1870 and was treated with peculiar deference by successive tsars, was none other than Alexander.'

  • But long before the advent of Buddhism, the hermit, or wandering beggar, was a familiar figure in India.

  • For us that movement of the peoples from west to east, without leaders, with a crowd of vagrants, and with Peter the Hermit, remains incomprehensible.

  • The ancients also recounts a few points regarding the childhood of Zoroaster and his hermit-life.

  • Inorabito), in Mahommedan religion a hermit or devotee.

  • The basis of this growth is partly the story-telling instinct innate in all men, which loves to heighten an effect, sharpen a point or increase a contrast - the instinct which breathes in Icelandic sagas like that of Burnt Njal; partly the instinct of idolization, if it may be so called, which leads to the perversion into impossible greatness of an approved character, and has created, in this instance, the legendary figures of Peter the Hermit and Godfrey of Bouillon (qq.v.); partly the religious impulse, which counted nothing wonderful in a holy war, and imported miraculous elements even into the sober pages of the Gesta.

  • And Contra Vigilantium liber), and to repeat his admiration of the hermit life in his Vita S.

  • The Lollards, for instance, did not hesitate to introduce into certain copies of the pious and orthodox Commentary on the Psalms by the hermit of Hampole interpolations of their own of the most virulently controversial kind (MSS.

  • And, closely as this approaches to pagan ideas, the distinction between paganism and Christianity is completely obliterated when we find the hermit Julian and his companions travelling to Sinai in order to worship the Deity there resident (Theod.

  • The sufferings of the Christians and the desecrations of their sacred buildings during these troubled times created wide-spread indignation through the west: and this indignation was inflamed into fury by Peter the Hermit, a native of Picardy, who in early life had been a soldier.

  • - The Macrura anomala, or Anomura in restricted sense, are popularly known through the hermit-crabs alone.

  • St Pietro Damiani (988-1072) was a scholar, hermit and reformer, who did more perhaps than any one else to combat the open marriages of the clergy.

  • He was sent as a child to be educated at Port Royal, and there he received his final bent towards the life of a recluse, and even of a hermit, which drew him to establish himself in the neighbourhood of Port Royal des Champs.

  • Their founder was Johann Conrad Beissel (1690-1768), a native of Eberbach and one of the first emigrants, who, after living as a hermit for several years on Mill Creek, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, founded the sect (1725), then again lived as a hermit in a cave (formerly occupied by another hermit, one Elimelech) on the Cocalico Creek in Pennsylvania, and in 1732-1735 established a semi-monastic community (the "Order of the Solitary") with a convent (the "Sister House") and a monastery (the "Brother House") at Ephrata, in what is now Lancaster county, about 55 m.

  • Peterwardein, the "Gibraltar of Hungary," is believed to represent the Roman Acumincum, and received its present name from Peter the Hermit, who here in 1096 marshalled the levies of the first crusade.

  • Griffis, The Hermit Nation (8th and revised edition, New York, 1907); H.

  • How now, Hermit, is it too soon?

  • It was at Athens that he seriously began to think of religion, and resolved to seek out the most famous hermit saints in Syria and Arabia, in order to learn from them how to attain to that enthusiastic piety in which he delighted, and how to keep his body under by maceration and other ascetic devices.

  • The hostility he encountered in the propagation of these new religious ideas after his return to Khorasan in 1052 and Sunnite fanaticism compelled him at last to flee, and after many wanderings he found a refuge in Yumgan (about 1060) in the mountains of Badakshan, where he spent as a hermit the last decades of his life, and gathered round him a considerable number of devoted adherents, who have handed down his doctrines to succeeding generations.

  • For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation).

    Crabs are decapodcrustaceans of the infraorderBrachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (Greek: βραχύς, translit. brachys = short,[2]οὐρά / οura = tail[3]), usually entirely hidden under the thorax. They live in all the world's oceans, in fresh water, and on land, are generally covered with a thick exoskeleton and have a single pair of claws. Many other animals with similar names – such as hermit crabs, king crabs, porcelain crabs, horseshoe crabs, and crab lice – are not true crabs.

    Evolution[edit]

    Crabs are generally covered with a thick exoskeleton, composed primarily of highly mineralized chitin,[4][5] and armed with a single pair of chelae (claws). Crabs are found in all of the world's oceans, while many crabs live in fresh water and on land, particularly in tropical regions. Crabs vary in size from the pea crab, a few millimetres wide, to the Japanese spider crab, with a leg span of up to 4 metres (13 ft).[6]

    About 850 species of crab are freshwater, terrestrial or semi-terrestrial species;[7] they are found throughout the world's tropical and semi-tropical regions. They were previously thought to be a monophyletic group, but are now believed to represent at least two distinct lineages, one in the Old World and one in the New World.[8]

    The earliest unambiguous crab fossils date from the Jurassic,[9] although CarboniferousImocaris, known only from its carapace, may be a primitive crab.[10] The radiation of crabs in the Cretaceous and afterward may be linked either to the break-up of Gondwana or to the concurrent radiation of bony fish, crabs' main predators.[11]

    Sexual dimorphism[edit]

    Crabs often show marked sexual dimorphism. Males often have larger claws,[12] a tendency which is particularly pronounced in the fiddler crabs of the genus Uca (Ocypodidae). In fiddler crabs, males have one claw which is greatly enlarged and which is used for communication, particularly for attracting a mate.[13] Another conspicuous difference is the form of the pleon (abdomen); in most male crabs, this is narrow and triangular in form, while females have a broader, rounded abdomen.[14] This is because female crabs brood fertilised eggs on their pleopods.

    Reproduction and lifecycle[edit]

    Crabs attract a mate through chemical (pheromones), visual, acoustic, or vibratory means. Pheromones are used by most fully aquatic crabs, while terrestrial and semiterrestrial crabs often use visual signals, such as fiddler crab males waving their large claws to attract females. The vast number of brachyuran crabs have internal fertilisation and mate belly-to-belly. For many aquatic species, mating takes place just after the female has moulted and is still soft. Females can store the sperm for a long time before using it to fertilise their eggs. When fertilisation has taken place, the eggs are released onto the female's abdomen, below the tail flap, secured with a sticky material. In this location, they are protected during embryonic development. Females carrying eggs are called "berried" since the eggs resemble round berries.

    When development is complete, the female releases the newly hatched larvae into the water, where they are part of the plankton. The release is often timed with the tides. The free-swimming tiny zoea larvae can float and take advantage of water currents. They have a spine, which probably reduces the rate of predation by larger animals. The zoea of most species must find food, but some crabs provide enough yolk in the eggs that the larval stages can continue to live off the yolk.

    Each species has a particular number of zoeal stages, separated by moults, before they change into a megalopa stage, which resembles an adult crab, except for having the abdomen (tail) sticking out behind. After one more moult, the crab is a juvenile, living on the bottom rather than floating in the water. This last moult, from megalopa to juvenile, is critical, and it must take place in a habitat that is suitable for the juvenile to survive.[15]:63–77

    Most species of terrestrial crabs must migrate down to the ocean to release their larvae; in some cases, this entails very extensive migrations. After living for a short time as larvae in the ocean, the juveniles must do this migration in reverse. In many tropical areas with land crabs, these migrations often result in considerable roadkill of migrating crabs.[15]:113–114

    Once crabs have become juveniles, they will still have to keep moulting many more times to become adults. They are covered with a hard shell, which would otherwise prevent growth. The moult cycle is coordinated by hormones. When preparing for moult, the old shell is softened and partly eroded away, while the rudimentary beginnings of a new shell form under it. At the time of moulting, the crab takes in a lot of water to expand and crack open the old shell at a line of weakness along the back edge of the carapace. The crab must then extract all of itself – including its legs, mouthparts, eyestalks, and even the lining of the front and back of the digestive tract – from the old shell. This is a difficult process that takes many hours, and if a crab gets stuck, it will die. After freeing itself from the old shell (now called an exuvia), the crab is extremely soft and hides until its new shell has hardened. While the new shell is still soft, the crab can expand it to make room for future growth.[15]:78–79

    Behavior[edit]

    Crabs typically walk sideways[16] (a behaviour which gives us the word crabwise), because of the articulation of the legs which makes a sidelong gait more efficient.[17] However, some crabs walk forwards or backwards, including raninids,[18]Libinia emarginata[19] and Mictyris platycheles.[16] Some crabs, notably the Portunidae and Matutidae, are also capable of swimming,[20] the Portunidae especially so as their last pair of walking legs is flattened into swimming paddles.[15]:96

    Crabs are mostly active animals with complex behaviour patterns. They can communicate by drumming or waving their pincers. Crabs tend to be aggressive towards one another, and males often fight to gain access to females.[21] On rocky seashores, where nearly all caves and crevices are occupied, crabs may also fight over hiding holes.[22]Fiddler crabs (genus Uca) dig burrows in sand or mud, which they use for resting, hiding, and mating, and to defend against intruders.[15]:28–29, 99

    Crabs are omnivores, feeding primarily on algae,[23] and taking any other food, including molluscs, worms, other crustaceans, fungi, bacteria and detritus, depending on their availability and the crab species. For many crabs, a mixed diet of plant and animal matter results in the fastest growth and greatest fitness.[24][25] However, some species are more specialised in their diets. Some eat plankton, some eat primarily shellfish like clams, and some even catch fish.[15]:85

    Crabs are known to work together to provide food and protection for their family, and during mating season to find a comfortable spot for the female to release her eggs.[26]

    Human consumption[edit]

    Fisheries[edit]

    Main article: Crab fisheries

    Crabs make up 20% of all marine crustaceans caught, farmed, and consumed worldwide, amounting to 1.5 million tonnes annually. One species, Portunus trituberculatus, accounts for one-fifth of that total. Other commercially important taxa include Portunus pelagicus, several species in the genus Chionoecetes, the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), Charybdis spp., Cancer pagurus, the Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister), and Scylla serrata, each of which yields more than 20,000 tonnes annually.[27]

    In some species, crab meat is harvested by manually twisting and pulling off one or both claws and returning the live crab to the water in the belief the crab will survive and regenerate the claws, thereby making it a sustainable industry.[28][29][30][31]

    Cookery[edit]

    See also: Crab meat and List of crab dishes

    Crabs are prepared and eaten as a dish in many different ways all over the world. Some species are eaten whole, including the shell, such as soft-shell crab; with other species, just the claws or legs are eaten. The latter is particularly common for larger crabs, such as the snow crab. In many cultures the roe of the female crab is also eaten, which usually appears orange or yellow in fertile crabs. This is popular in Southeast Asian cultures, some Mediterranean and Northern European cultures, as well as on the Eastern, Chesapeake and Southern coasts of the United States.

    In some regions, spices improve the culinary experience. In Southeast Asia and Indosphere, masala crab and chilli crab are examples of heavily spiced dishes. In the Chesapeake Bay region, blue crab is often steamed with Old Bay Seasoning. Alaskan king crab or snow crab legs are usually simply boiled and served with garlic or lemon butter.

    For the British dish Dressed Crab, the crab meat is extracted and placed inside the hard shell. One American way to prepare crab meat is by extracting it and adding varying amounts of binders, such as egg white, cracker meal, mayonnaise or mustard, creating a crab cake. Crabs can also be made into a bisque, a global dish of French origin which in its authentic form includes in the broth the pulverized shells of the shellfish from which it is made.

    Imitation crab, also called Surimi, is made from minced fish meat that is crafted and colored to resemble crab meat. While it is sometimes disdained among some elements of the culinary industry as an unacceptably low-quality substitute for real crab, this does not hinder its popularity, especially as a sushi ingredient in Japan and South Korea, and in home cooking, where cost is often a chief concern.[32] Indeed, surimi is an extremely important source of protein in most East and Southeast Asian cultures, appearing in staple ingredients such as fish balls and fish cake.

    Pain[edit]

    Main article: Pain in crustaceans

    Crabs are often boiled alive. In 2005, Norwegian scientists concluded that crustaceans could not feel pain.[33] However, a study by Bob Elwood and Mirjam Appel of Queens University in Belfast, found that hermit crabs reacted to electric shocks. This may indicate that some crustaceans are able to feel and remember pain.[34][35]

    Classification[edit]

    The infraorder Brachyura contains 6,793 species in 93 families,[20] as many as the remainder of the Decapoda.[36] The evolution of crabs is characterised by an increasingly robust body, and a reduction in the abdomen. Although many other groups have undergone similar processes, carcinisation is most advanced in crabs. The telson is no longer functional in crabs, and the uropods are absent, having probably evolved into small devices for holding the reduced abdomen tight against the sternum.

    In most decapods, the gonopores (sexual openings) are found on the legs. However, since crabs use the first two pairs of pleopods (abdominal appendages) for sperm transfer, this arrangement has changed. As the male abdomen evolved into a narrower shape, the gonopores have moved towards the midline, away from the legs, and onto the sternum.[37] A similar change occurred, independently, with the female gonopores. The movement of the female gonopore to the sternum defines the cladeEubrachyura, and the later change in the position of the male gonopore defines the Thoracotremata. It is still a subject of debate whether those crabs where the female, but not male, gonopores are situated on the sternum, form a monophyletic group.[36]

    Superfamilies[edit]

    Numbers of extant and extinct (†) species are given in brackets.[20] The superfamily Eocarcinoidea, containing Eocarcinus and Platykotta, was formerly thought to contain the oldest crabs; it is now considered part of the Anomura.[38]

    • Section Dromiacea
    • Section Raninoida (46, 196†)
    • Section Cyclodorippoida (99, 27†)
    • Section Eubrachyura
      • Subsection Heterotremata
        • Aethroidea (37, 44†)
        • Bellioidea (7)
        • Bythograeoidea (14)
        • Calappoidea (101, 71†)
        • Cancroidea (57, 81†)
        • Carpilioidea (4, 104†)
        • Cheiragonoidea (3, 13†)
        • Corystoidea (10, 5†)
        • Componocancroidea (1†)
        • Dairoidea (4, 8†)
        • Dorippoidea (101, 73†)
        • Eriphioidea (67, 14†)
        • Gecarcinucoidea (349)
        • Goneplacoidea (182, 94†)
        • Hexapodoidea (21, 25†)
        • Leucosioidea (488, 113†)
        • Majoidea (980, 89†)
        • Orithyioidea (1)
        • Palicoidea (63, 6†)
        • Parthenopoidea (144, 36†)
        • Pilumnoidea (405, 47†)
        • Portunoidea (455, 200†)
        • Potamoidea (662, 8†)
        • Pseudothelphusoidea (276)
        • Pseudozioidea (22, 6†)
        • Retroplumoidea (10, 27†)
        • Trapezioidea (58, 10†)
        • Trichodactyloidea (50)
        • Xanthoidea (736, 134†)
      • Subsection Thoracotremata

    Cultural influences[edit]

    Both the constellationCancer and the astrological signCancer are named after the crab, and depicted as a crab. William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse drew the Crab Nebula in 1848 and noticed its similarity to the animal; the Crab Pulsar lies at the centre of the nebula.[39] The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped nature, especially the sea,[40] and often depicted crabs in their art.[41] In Greek mythology, Karkinos was a crab that came to the aid of the Lernaean Hydra as it battled Heracles. One of Rudyard Kipling's Just So Stories, The Crab that Played with the Sea, tells the story of a gigantic crab who made the waters of the sea go up and down, like the tides.[42]

    The Kapsiki people, North Cameroon use the way crabs handle objects for divination.

    References[edit]

    1. ^Sammy De Grave; N. Dean Pentcheff; Shane T. Ahyong; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans"(PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-06-06. 
    2. ^Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott. "βραχύς". A Greek–English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 2010-05-24. 
    3. ^Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott. "οὐρά". A Greek–English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 2010-05-24. 
    4. ^F. Boßelmann; P. Romano; H. Fabritius; D. Raabe; M. Epple (October 25, 2007). "The composition of the exoskeleton of two crustacea: The American lobster Homarus americanus and the edible crab Cancer pagurus". Thermochimica Acta. 463 (1–2): 65–68. doi:10.1016/j.tca.2007.07.018. 
    5. ^P. Chen; A.Y. Lin; J. McKittrick; M.A. Meyers (May 2008). "Structure and mechanical properties of crab exoskeletons". Acta Biomaterialia. 4 (3): 587–596. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2007.12.010. 
    6. ^"Japanese spider crab Macrocheira kaempferi". Oceana North America. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
    7. ^Richard von Sternberg; Neil Cumberlidge (2001). "On the heterotreme-thoracotreme distinction in the Eubrachyura De Saint Laurent, 1980 (Decapoda: Brachyura)"(PDF). Crustaceana. 74 (4): 321–338. doi:10.1163/156854001300104417. 
    8. ^R. von Sternberg; N. Cumberlidge; G. Rodriguez (1999). "On the marine sister groups of the freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura)". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 37: 19–38. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0469.1999.95092.x. 
    9. ^Carrie E. Schweitzer; Rodney M. Feldmann (2010). "The oldest Brachyura (Decapoda: Homolodromioidea: Glaessneropsoidea) known to date (Jurassic)". Journal of Crustacean Biology. 30 (2): 251–256. doi:10.1651/09-3231.1. 
    10. ^Frederick Schram; Royal Mapes (1984). "Imocaris tuberculata, n. gen., n. sp. (Crustacea: Decapoda) from the upper Mississippian Imo Formation, Arkansas". Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 20 (11): 165–168. 
    11. ^J. W. Wägele (1989). "On the influence of fishes on the evolution of benthic crustaceans"(PDF). Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung. 27 (4): 297–309. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.1989.tb00352.x. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-07-19. 
    12. ^L. H. Sweat (August 21, 2009). "Pachygrapsus transversus". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2010-01-20. 
    13. ^Martin J. How; Jan M. Hemmi; Jochen Zeil; Richard Peters (2008). "Claw waving display changes with receiver distance in fiddler crabs, Uca perplexa"(PDF). Animal Behaviour. 75 (3): 1015–1022. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.09.004. 
    14. ^Guillermo Guerao; Guiomar Rotllant (2009). "Post-larval development and sexual dimorphism of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla (Brachyura: Majidae)"(PDF). Scientia Marina. 73 (4): 797–808. doi:10.3989/scimar.2009.73n4797. 
    15. ^ abcdefJudith S. Weis (2012). Walking Sideways: The Remarkable World of Crabs. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-5050-1. OCLC 794640315. 
    16. ^ abSally Sleinis; Gerald E. Silvey (1980). "Locomotion in a forward walking crab". Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology. 136 (4): 301–312. doi:10.1007/BF00657350. 
    17. ^A. G. Vidal-Gadea; M.D. Rinehart; J.H. Belanger (March 2008). "Skeletal adaptations for forwards and sideways walking in three species of decapod crustaceans". Arthropod Structure & Development. 37 (2): 179–194. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2007.06.002. PMID 18089130. 
    18. ^"Spanner crab Ranina ranina". Fishing and Aquaculture. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries. 2005. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
    19. ^A. G. Vidal-Gadea; J. H. Belanger (2009). "Muscular anatomy of the legs of the forward walking crab, Libinia emarginata (Decapoda, Brachyura, Majoidea)". Arthropod Structure & Development. 38 (3): 179–194. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2008.12.002. PMID 19166968. 
    20. ^ abcPeter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie (2008). "Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world"(PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 17: 1–286. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-06-06. 
    21. ^"Crab (animal)". Encarta. Microsoft. 2005. 
    22. ^The Miles Kelly Book of Life. Great Bardfield, Essex: Miles Kelly Publishing. 2006. p. 512. ISBN 978-1-84236-715-5. 
    23. ^Chris M. C. Woods (1993). "Natural diet of the crab Notomithrax ursus (Brachyura, Majidae) at Oaro, South Island, New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 27 (3): 309–315. doi:10.1080/00288330.1993.9516571. Archived from the original on 2008-07-08. 
    24. ^Robin Kennish (1996). "Diet composition influences the fitness of the herbivorous crab Grapsus albolineatus". Oecologia. 105 (1): 22–29. doi:10.1007/BF00328787. 
    25. ^Tracy L. Buck; Greg A. Breed; Steven C. Pennings; Margo E. Chase; Martin Zimmer; Thomas H. Carefoot (2003). "Diet choice in an omnivorous salt-marsh crab: different food types, body size, and habitat complexity". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 292 (1): 103–116. doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(03)00146-1. 
    26. ^Danièle Guinot & J.–M. Bouchard (1998). "Evolution of the abdominal holding systems of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura)". Zoosystema. 20 (4): 613–694. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2006-11-18. 
    27. ^"Global Capture Production 1950-2004". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2006-08-26. 
    28. ^"Stone Crabs FAQs". Retrieved 2012-09-23. 
    29. ^Lynsey Patterson; Jaimie T.A. Dick; Robert W. Elwood (January 2009). "Claw removal and feeding ability in the edible crab, Cancer pagurus: implications for fishery practice". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 116 (2): 302–305. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2008.08.007. 
    30. ^Queen's University, Belfast (October 10, 2007). "Declawing crabs may lead to their death". Science Daily. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
    31. ^"Recreational Stone Crabbing Information". Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Retrieved 2012-09-23. 
    32. ^Imitation Crab Draws Criticisms
    33. ^David Adam (February 8, 2005). "Scientists say lobsters feel no pain". The Guardian. 
    34. ^"Crabs 'feel and remember pain' suggests new study". CNN. March 27, 2009. 
    35. ^Robert W. Elwood; Mirjam Appel (2009). "Pain experience in hermit crabs?"(PDF). Animal Behaviour. 77 (5): 1243–1246. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.01.028. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2012-04-26. 
    36. ^ abJoel W. Martin; George E. Davis (2001). An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea(PDF).
    The underside of a male (top) and a female (bottom) individual of Pachygrapsus marmoratus, showing the difference in shape of the abdomen
    Crab (Pachygrapsus marmoratus) on Istrian coast, Adriatic Sea
    A crab divination pot in Kapsiki, North Cameroon.

    Comments

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *